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C.J. O'Brien, M. Hanel, V. Dolan, H.R. Brady, C. Hensey; Expression and Function of Gremlin in the Developing Xenopus Eye . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):645.
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Purpose: We have recently identified that bovine retinal pericytes in high glucose show increased expression of gremlin, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. BMP's and their antagonists are important developmental regulators and we are studying the role of the BMP antagonist gremlin in development of the Xenopus eye. We report here a detailed analysis of the expression patterns of gremlin mRNA and protein during early Xenopus eye development. Methods: Expression patterns were analysed by wholemount in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. Results: Gremlin mRNA is specifically expressed in the developing retina and lens at St. 35-40. This corresponds to the period of primary morphogenesis and the first cellular differentiation. The retinal layer and visual cells begin to differentiate and the inner corneal layer is formed. Using an antibody that specifically recognises Xenopus gremlin in immunoblotting experiments, gremlin protein was also detected in the developing lens and retina at Stage 35-40. Conclusion: This localised expression may reflect a physiological function for gremlin during vertebrate eye development and this is being addressed by determining the effect of gremlin overexpression and knockdown on eye development.
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