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T. Berendschot, W.M. Broekmans, W.A. Klöpping-Ketelaars, J.A. Westrate, L.B. Tijburg, G. van Poppel, A.F. Kardinaal, D. van Norren; A Decrease in Serum Carotenoid Concentrations has No Impact on Macular Pigment Density . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):778.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: Replacement of fatty foods by foods containing low, or zero-energy fat substitutes may help in reducing the energy intake of an overfed population. Snacks in which sucrose polyesters (SPE) replace dietary fats are now on the market in the US. SPE products lower concentrations of serum carotenoids in short term studies. The aim of this study was to measure the long-term effects on health of decreased carotenoid concentrations. Methods: We performed a 1-year randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled parallel trial. We randomly assigned 380 subjects to the treatment with intakes of 0, 7, 10 or 17 g/day SPE. SPE was given in the form of spreads (daily consumption), chips (snackwise consumption), or both. SPE products were enriched with vitamin A, D, E and K according to the FDA regulation. Macular pigment density was determined by spectral analysis of fundus reflectance. Among other factors, we compared the groups with regard to body weight, serum lipids, serum carotenoids, vitamins and macula pigment density. Results: After 1 year of intervention, serum lipid adjusted carotenoids showed the largest decrease in the 17 g/day group compared with the control group (ß-carotene 44%, α-carotene 33%, lycopene 24%, ß-cryptoxanthin 18%, lutein 18% (all P<0.001) and zeaxanthin 13% (P<0.05)). No change in macular pigment density was observed, despite the decreased concentrations of carotenoids. Conclusions: This study suggests that a decrease in serum carotenoid may have no effect on the macular pigment density.
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