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F. Jonasson, A. Arnarsson, T. Sverrisson, E. Stefánsson, H. Sigurdsson, I. Gislason, H. Sasaki, K. Sasaki, T. Peto, A.C. Bird; 5-year Incidence of Age-related Maculopathy - Reykjavik Eye Study . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):3083.
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Purpose: To examine the 5-year incidence of retinal drusen, retinal pigmentary abnormalities and signs of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: This is a random sample from the population census. The study includes the 1045 persons who were ≥50 years and participated at the time of base line examination in 1996, of whom 846 (88% of survivors) participated in a 5-year follow-up examination in 2001. The pupils were dilated and simultaneous stereo fundus photography performed. The classification and grading system followed the guidelines of the International Age-related Maculopathy Study-Group, including a macular grid (Surv. Ophthalmol 39, 367-374, 1995). Early ARM includes the presence of soft, indistinct or reticular drusen ≥63µ and/or presence of retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities ≥63µ within the grid. Late AMD includes geographic atrophy and exudative macular degeneration. The grading was done at the Reading Centre of Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, England. Results: The 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy by either eye (drusen & RPA ≥63 µ), both sexes combined was 14.8%, 17.6%, 43.9% and 50.0% for those 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80 years and older at base line, respectively. The 5-year incidence for late AMD (geographic atrophy and exudative AMD) in either eye both sexes combined was 0.0%, 0.4%, 4.4% and 5.9% for those 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80 years and older at base line, respectively.Altogether 8 persons had developed late age-related macular degeneration during the 5 years, 7 geographic atrophy and 1 exudative AMD. 15% of those with semisolid drusen >125µ at baseline had progressed to late AMD at 5 years. Conclusions: This study confirms our observation from 2 previous prevalence studies that geographic atrophy is much more common in Iceland than exudative age-related macular degeneration. Furthermore, it also confirms that geographic atrophy is more common in Iceland than in other Caucasian populations.
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