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J.G. Flanagan, P.O. Lundmark, G.E. Trope; The Toronto Hospital Glaucoma Health and Sleep Survey (THGHSS): Depressive Symptomatology in Tertiary-Care Glaucoma Patients . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):4361.
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Purpose: To investigate depressive symptomatology among patients with glaucoma and to relate findings to disease stability. Methods: The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire, along with questions related to general health and use of medications, were mailed to 1814 glaucoma patients registered in a tertiary referral center. Responders were included if i) their diagnosis was either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), normal tension glaucoma (NTG), or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in at least one eye, ii) the disease duration was 3 years or more, and iii) clinical examinations were obtained annually. A subsample with reliable perimetric results was selected and classified as either stable or progressive, based on pointwise decline in the visual field. Groups were compared using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results: There were 884 responders (53% response rate). Disease stability was determined in a subsample of 269 patients of which 179 were classified as stable. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 24% in stable disease and 11% in those with progressive disease. The adjusted odds ratio for depressive symptoms in stable disease was 3.7 (1.4 – 9.4, p= 0.007). There was no significant difference in depressive symptoms between POAG, NTG and PACG. Conclusions: Contrary to expectation, depressive symptoms were 3.7 times more common in stable than progressive disease.
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