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G Kumaramanickavel, S Sripriya, VL Ramprasad, RN Vellanki, NK Upadyay, B Sukumar, T Sharma; Polymorphic Variations in iNOS, ALR2, IGF-1 Genes and Susceptibility to Diabetic Retinopathy in Asian Indian Patients . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):1343.
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Purpose:To study the microsatellite promoter polymorphism in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), aldose reductase (ALR2) and insulin like growth factor-1(IGF-1) genes and their association with diabetic retinopathy in Asian Indian patients. These genes are important candidates for allelic associations and pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy in various populations. Methods:Individuals with type 2 diabetes for more than 15 years were divided into two groups, diabetic retinopathy group (DR) (n=100) patients with retinopathy (more than five dots or blots per eye, hard or soft exudates, new vessels in the disc or any of the quadrants in the retina, maculopathy or vitreous haemorrhage) and diabetic non-retinopathy group (DNR) (n=100) are without retinopathy. A control group with no diabetes or retinopathy was also studied. DNA from all groups were polymerase chain reaction amplified and screened for (CCTTT)n , (CA)n and (CA)n polymorphism upstream to the promoter of iNOS, ALR2 and IGF-1 genes respectively. Allele frequencies were compared between DR and DNR groups using Pearson chi-square test. Results:Significant alleles present in the DR were 210bp for iNOS (p=0.043), Z-2 (136 bp) for ALR2 (p=0.029) and 208bp for IGF-1 (p=0.001). Conclusion:This study shows the possible role of these genes in the development of diabetic retinopathy in the Asian Indian population.
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