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AM Gazzard, S-M Saw, D Koh, M Farook, D Widjaja, J Lee, DT H Tan; Prevalence Rates and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors in South Sumatra, Indonesia . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):1515.
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Purpose: To describe the prevalence rates and risk factors for myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia in adults in provincial Indonesia. Methods: A population-based prevalence survey of 1043 adults aged 21 years and above was conducted in five rural villages and one provincial town in Riau province, Sumatra, Indonesia. A one-stage household cluster sampling procedure was employed: 100 households were selected from each village or town. Refractive error measurements were obtained using Retinomax K-plus (Nikon) handheld autorefractors. Household interviews were conducted to obtain information on relevant lifestyle risk factors. The participation rate was 94.9%. Results: The mean age was 36.7 years (SD 12.7), 498 were male. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of myopia (SE (spherical equivalent) at least -0.5 Diopters [D]) was 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45.4, 51.6); hyperopia (SE at least +1.0 D), 15.8% (95% CI: 13.6, 18.0); astigmatism (cylinder at least -1.0 D), 47.2% (95% CI: 44.3, 50.0), and anisometropia (SE difference ≷= +1.0 D) 15.1% (95% CI: 12.9, 17.4). In a multiple logistic regression model, myopia independently decreased with age in adults aged 21 to 50 years and increased with age in adults above 50 years; whereas the rates of myopia independently increased with income. The age-adjusted overall prevalence rate of high myopia (SE at least -6.0 D) was 0.8% (95% CI 0.2, 1.5). Hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia rates independently increased with age and variations with age and income were similar to that in other populations. Conclusions: The prevalence rates of myopia in provincial Sumatra are higher than the rates in Caucasian populations, but lower than the rates in urbanised Asian countries, such as Singapore, where there is more intensive schooling. However the prevalence rate of high myopia is lower than both Asian and Caucasian populations.
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