December 2002
Volume 43, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   December 2002
Extraocular Tissue Type Architecture
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • JM Miller
    Smith-Kettlewell Eye Rsch Inst San Francisco CA
  • JL Demer
    Jules Stein Eye Institute UCLA Los Angeles CA
  • V Poukens
    Jules Stein Eye Institute UCLA Los Angeles CA
  • DS Pavlovski
    Smith-Kettlewell Eye Rsch Inst San Francisco CA
  • HN Nguyen
    Smith-Kettlewell Eye Rsch Inst San Francisco CA
  • EA Rossi
    Smith-Kettlewell Eye Rsch Inst San Francisco CA
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   J.M. Miller, None; J.L. Demer, None; V. Poukens, None; D.S. Pavlovski, None; H.N. Nguyen, None; E.A. Rossi, None. Grant Identification: EY13443
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science December 2002, Vol.43, 1913. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      JM Miller, JL Demer, V Poukens, DS Pavlovski, HN Nguyen, EA Rossi; Extraocular Tissue Type Architecture . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):1913.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Abstract: : Purpose: EOM pulleys (Miller, 1989) probably escaped earlier detection because they are distributed condensations of smooth muscle, elastin, and collagen, and because biomechanical modeling of the orbit (Miller, 1984; Robinson, 1975) had not yet predicted their existence. There have been few systematic attempts to characterize other distributed orbital structures that are able to show overall geometry and determine composition or mechanical properties of tissues. Characterizing distributed structures and properties requires an imaging approach, which unfortunately cannot directly give mechanical properties. Imaging can, however, give strong hints about mechanical properties and direct subsequent mechanical measurements by showing the types and densities of constituent tissues. Methods: We developed methods for producing 3D images of extraocular tissues, incorporating histochemical, immunohistochemical, and MRI results to distinguish striated muscle, smooth muscle, collagen, and elastin. Loss of registration of successive slices and distortion of the slices themselves were corrected by computer-aided image processing. We present results from several human cadaveric orbits as manipulable 3D objects so that spatial relationships and other distributed patterns can be appreciated. Results: In addition to connective tissue distributions that describe the most significant fascial constraints, we distinguish muscle lamina, blood vessels, and nerves (figure shows nerves - note, eg, that the neurofibrovascular bundle [Stager, 1996] takes a meandering path, and so is unlikely to exert effective extraocular elasticity).  

Conclusion: Our data provide basic constraints on new biomechanical models, and on the theories of oculomotor physiologists and strabismologists, and will also be of interest to orbital surgeons generally.

Keywords: 501 orbit • 405 extraocular muscles: structure • 495 ocular motor control 

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.