December 2002
Volume 43, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   December 2002
Grading Drusen from Digital Images
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • KS Elsner
    Scheie Eye Institute University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA
  • R Whittock
    Scheie Eye Institute University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA
  • J Alexander
    Scheie Eye Institute University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA
  • R Rees
    Scheie Eye Institute University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA
  • B Madjarov
    Scheie Eye Institute University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   K.S. Elsner, None; R. Whittock, None; J. Alexander, None; R. Rees, None; B. Madjarov, None. Grant Identification: NEI Grant EY12211, NEI Grant EY12279
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science December 2002, Vol.43, 2503. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      KS Elsner, R Whittock, J Alexander, R Rees, B Madjarov; Grading Drusen from Digital Images . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):2503.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract: : Purpose:To evaluate the agreement between grading drusen from digital images on a calibrated monitor versus grading drusen from film-based images on a lightbox. Methods:15 patients (30 eyes) were randomly selected from the Complications of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). The higher quality frame from each baseline F2 color stereoscopic pair was scanned at 1000 dpi (Nikon Super CoolScan 4000), 24 bits/pixel to an image size of 1100x945. A digitally generated template of the standard fields for grading age-related maculopathy was overlaid onto each digital image using custom developed software. For digital image grading, templated images were viewed on a calibrated monitor with XGA resolution. For film-based grading, templated images were re-rendered as 35 mm slides and viewed stereoscopically with a Donaldson 5X viewer on a lightbox. Two experienced graders independently graded all digital and film-based images using an ordinal scale as specified by the CAPT Reading Center protocol. Images were evaluated in 3 subfields for number of drusen ≥125 microns, largest drusen size, area covered by drusen and drusen confluence, as well as globally for predominant drusen size, area covered by drusen and presence of reticular pseudodrusen. Adjudicated monitor gradings were compared to adjudicated lightbox gradings using percent exact agreement and the weighted kappa statistic Κwt. Results:For the seven drusen questions, agreement ranged from fair to excellent. Agreement for the gradings in each subfield of number of drusen was substantial to excellent (73 - 100%; Κwt = 0.73 - 1.00) and moderate to excellent for largest drusen size (60 - 100%; Κwt = 0.48 - 1.00), area covered by drusen (40 - 93%; Κwt = 0.00 - 0.93), and drusen confluence (73 - 93%; Κwt = 0.44 - 0.92). Agreement was perfect for reticular pseudodrusen (100%; Κwt = 1.00), but fair to moderate for predominant drusen size (73%; Κwt = 0.16 - 0.58) and global drusen area (73 - 87%; Κwt = 0.38 - 0.44). Conclusion:Grading of drusen on a calibrated color monitor yielded high concordance with 'gold standard' lightbox grading, although discrepancies on some features warrant further investigation. Future research studies may be able to rely exclusively on the digital environment for grading drusen in patients with macular degeneration.

Keywords: 308 age-related macular degeneration • 359 clinical research methodology • 431 imaging/image analysis: non-clinical 

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