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JL Seeman, C Rasmussen, BT Gabelt, PL Kaufman; Anesthesia Effects on Epinephrine-Stimulated Aqueous Humor Formation in Monkeys . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(13):3274.
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Purpose:Determine if there is a difference in epinephrine (EPI)-stimulated aqueous humor formation (AHF) in monkeys under isoflurane (IFL) inhalation vs i.v. pentobarbital (PB) anesthesia. Methods:Four cynomolgus monkeys (n=4) were studied two at a time. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine i.m. (10 mg/kg) followed by either PB (15 mg/kg initial, 5-10 mg/kg supplemental doses) in one monkey or IFL (1-2.5%) in the other. Baseline (BL) AHF was measured by fluorophotometry over a 6 hr period. Monkeys were then treated with 600 µg of topical EPI (2X5 µl drops) BID (800 mg (-)epinephrine (+) bitartrate added to 10 ml of 2% Glaucon® to achieve a final epinephrine concentration of 600 µg in 10 µl). AHF was determined after the 7th treatment on day 4 with a given monkey receiving the same anesthesia as at BL. After a 3 wk rest period, anesthesia regimens were reversed and new BL and EPI experiments repeated. Other parameters measured every 15 min throughout each experiment in all animals included: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), hemoglobin saturation of oxygen (SpO2), temperature, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and blood pressure (BP). Results:Baseline AHF (PB=1.40±0.05 ul/min; IFL=1.32±0.16 ul/min) was not different between anesthetic regimens: EPI treated AHF under PB was increased by 20±12% compared to AHF under IFL: (EPI PB= 1.73±0.20 µl/min, EPI IFL= 1.36±0.12 µl/min). There appeared to be a contralateral effect of EPI under PB that was not seen under IFL. The parameters measured to monitor and gauge anesthetic depth differed primarily in measurements of MAP and BP. MAP in the IFL anesthetized animals was lower than in the PB anesthetized animals by 30±3%. Systolic and diastolic BP were lower in the IFL anesthetized animals by 20±2% and 34±3% respectively. HR was lower in the IFL anesthetized monkeys by 12±4%. RR and SpO2 were similar under both anesthetics. Body temperature was more easily maintained in the PB anesthetized animals. Conclusion:: IFL appears to suppress the EPI induced increase in AHF without affecting BL AHF. PB may thus be the preferred anesthetic for AHF studies of the effects of compounds on EPI stimulated flow. Additional animals need to be studied to determine the statistical significance of these results.
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