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Kyle Kovacs, Kyle V. Marra, Gina Yu, Sushant Wagley, Jie Ma, Gianna C. Teague, Namrata Nandakumar, Kameran Lashkari, Jorge G. Arroyo; Angiogenic and Inflammatory Vitreous Biomarkers Associated With Increasing Levels of Retinal Ischemia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(11):6523-6530. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.15-16793.
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To characterize the angiogenic and inflammatory vitreous biomarker profiles in a spectrum of ischemic retinopathies, including neovascular glaucoma.
This institutional review board–approved study retrospectively analyzed 80 undiluted vitreous samples obtained during pars vitrectomy. The specimens were frozen (−80°C) and sent for concentration analysis of 34 proteins by Bio-Plex Pro assays. Specimens were divided into four groups: patients undergoing epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling and/or macular hole (MH) surgery with no history of diabetes (non-DM group), patients undergoing ERM peeling, and/or MH surgery with a history of diabetes (DM group), patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group), and patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG group). Parametric and nonparametric analyses of demographics and cytokine levels were performed using SPSS.
There were no significant differences in demographics among cohorts. Numerous proteins were significantly elevated between non-DM and DM (G-CSF, sCD40L, Endoglin, IL-6, placental growth factor [PlGF], VEGF-D), DM and PDR (leptin, IL-8, PlGF, VEGF-A), and PDR and NVG (G-CSF, leptin, TIE-2, sCD40L, EGF, HB-EGF, IL-6, IL-8, PlGF, TNF-α). Only PlGF was significantly elevated between each successive cohort. The most potent drivers of NVG were PlGF, VEGF-A, IL-6, and IL-8.
While the role of angioproliferative growth factors is well documented in ischemic retinopathy, our study delineates the importance of inflammatory and previously underreported angiogenic proteins. It also demonstrates a significant incremental increase in certain factors with increasing levels of ischemia. Both of these findings may guide the development of future therapies for ischemic retinopathies.
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