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Phillip S. Coburn, Brandt J. Wiskur, Roger A. Astley, Michelle C. Callegan; Blood–Retinal Barrier Compromise and Endogenous Staphylococcus aureus Endophthalmitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(12):7303-7311. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-17488.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To test the hypothesis that blood–retinal barrier compromise is associated with the development of endogenous Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis.
To compromise the blood–retinal barrier in vivo, streptozotocin-induced diabetes was induced in C57BL/6J mice for 1, 3, or 5 months. Diabetic and age-matched nondiabetic mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony-forming units (cfu) of S. aureus, a common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis in diabetics. After 4 days post infection, electroretinography, histology, and bacterial counts were performed. Staphylococcus aureus–induced alterations in in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell barrier structure and function were assessed by anti–ZO-1 immunohistochemistry, FITC-dextran conjugate diffusion, and bacterial transmigration assays.
We observed one bilateral infection in a control, nondiabetic animal (mean = 1.54 × 103 ± 1.78 × 102 cfu/eye, 7% incidence). Among the 1-month diabetic mice, we observed culture-confirmed unilateral infections in two animals (mean = 5.54 × 102 ± 7.09 × 102 cfu/eye, 12% incidence). Among the 3-month diabetic mice, infections were observed in 11 animals, three with bilateral infections (mean = 2.67 × 102 ± 2.49 × 102 cfu/eye, 58% incidence). Among the 5-month diabetic mice, we observed infections in five animals (mean = 7.88 × 102 ± 1.08 × 103 cfu/eye, 33% incidence). In vitro, S. aureus infection reduced ZO-1 immunostaining and disrupted the barrier function of cultured RPE cells, resulting in diffusion of fluorophore-conjugated dextrans and transmigration of live bacteria across a permeabilized RPE barrier.
Taken together, these results indicated that S. aureus is capable of inducing blood–retinal barrier permeability and causing endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis in normal and diabetic animals.
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