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Serdar Yavuzyigitoglu, Hanneke W. Mensink, Kyra N. Smit, Jolanda Vaarwater, Robert M. Verdijk, Berna Beverloo, Hennie T. Brüggenwirth, Ronald van Marion, Hendrikus J. Dubbink, Dion Paridaens, Nicole C. Naus, Annelies de Klein, Emine Kiliç, for the Rotterdam Ocular Melanoma Study Group (ROMS),; Metastatic Disease in Polyploid Uveal Melanoma Patients Is Associated With BAP1 Mutations. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(4):2232-2239. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.15-18608.
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Most of the uvea melanoma (UM) display a near-diploid (normal, ∼2N) karyotype with only a few chromosomal changes. In contrast to these simple aberrations 18% of the UM samples show a polyploid character (>2N) and this was associated with an unfavorable prognosis. This study attempts to gain insight in the prognostic value of polyploidy in UM.
In 202 patients the ploidy status of the UM was determined using cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH), multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and/or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the BAP1 expression and mutation analyses of BAP1 (coding regions) and the mutation hotspots for the SF3B1, EIF1AX, GNAQ, and GNA11 genes was carried out using Sanger sequencing or whole-exome sequencing.
Twenty-three patients had a polyploid UM karyotype (11.4%). Patients with a polyploid tumor had larger tumors (15.61 vs. 13.13 mm, P = 0.004), and more often loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 3 (P = 0.003). No difference in occurrence of mutations between polyploid and diploid tumors was observed for BAP1, SF3B1, EIF1AX, GNAQ, and GNA11. Polyploidy did not affect survival (P = 0.143). BAP1 deficiency was the only significant independent prognostic predictor for patients with polyploid tumors, with a 16-fold increased hazard ratio (HR 15.90, P = 0.009).
The prevalence of mutations in the UM related genes is not different in polyploid UM compared with diploid UM. Moreover, similar to patients with diploid UM, BAP1 mutation is the most significant prognostic predictor of metastasis in patients with polyploid UM.
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