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Ajoy Vincent, Judith Ng, Christina Gerth-Kahlert, Erika Tavares, Jason T. Maynes, Thomas Wright, Amit Tiwari, Anupreet Tumber, Shuning Li, James V. M. Hanson, Angela Bahr, Heather MacDonald, Luzy Bähr, Carol Westall, Wolfgang Berger, Frans P. M. Cremers, Anneke I. den Hollander, Elise Héon; Biallelic Mutations in CRB1 Underlie Autosomal Recessive Familial Foveal Retinoschisis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(6):2637-2646. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-18281.
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To identify the genetic cause of autosomal recessive familial foveal retinoschisis (FFR).
A female sibship with FFR was identified (Family-A; 17 and 16 years, respectively); panel based genetic sequencing (132 genes) and comparative genome hybridization (142 genes) were performed. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on both siblings using the Illumina-HiSeq-2500 platform. A sporadic male (Family-B; 35 years) with FFR underwent WES using Illumina NextSeq500. All three affected subjects underwent detailed ophthalmologic evaluation including fundus photography, autofluorescence imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and full-field electroretinogram (ERG).
Panel-based genetic testing identified two presumed disease causing variants in CRB1 (p.Gly123Cys and p.Cys948Tyr) in Family-A sibship; no deletion or duplication was detected. WES analysis in the sibship identified nine genes with two or more shared nonsynonymous rare coding sequence variants; CRB1 remained a strong candidate gene, and CRB1 variants segregated with the disease. WES in Family-B identified two presumed disease causing variants in CRB1 (p.Ile167_Gly169del and p.Arg764Cys) that segregated with the disease phenotype. Distance visual acuity was 20/40 or better in all three affected except for the left eye of the older subject (Family-B), which showed macular atrophy. Fundus evaluation showed spoke-wheel appearance at the macula in five eyes. The SD-OCT showed macular schitic changes in inner and outer nuclear layers in all cases. The ERG responses were normal in all subjects.
This is the first report to implicate CRB1 as the underlying cause of FFR. This phenotype forms the mildest end of the spectrum of CRB1-related diseases.
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