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Pasquale Aragona, Alessandro Allegra, Elisa Imelde Postorino, Laura Rania, Vanessa Innao, Edward Wylegala, Anna Nowinska, Antonio Ieni, Antonina Pisani, Caterina Musolino, Domenico Puzzolo, Antonio Micali; Corneal Structural Changes in Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Monoclonal Gammopathies. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(6):2657-2665. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-18594.
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To investigate corneal confocal microscopic changes in nonneoplastic and neoplastic monoclonal gammopathies.
Three groups of subjects were considered: group 1, twenty normal subjects; group 2, fifteen patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); group 3, eight patients with smoldering multiple myeloma and eight patients with untreated multiple myeloma. After hematologic diagnosis, patients underwent ophthalmologic exam and in vivo confocal microscopic study. The statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
Epithelial cells of gammopathic patients showed significantly higher reflectivity than controls, demonstrated by optical density (P < 0.001). Subbasal nerve density, branching, and beading were significantly altered in gammopathic patients (P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.02, respectively). The number of keratocytes was significantly reduced in neoplastic patients (P < 0.001 versus both normal and MGUS) in the anterior, medium, and posterior stroma. The ROC curve analysis showed good sensitivity and specificity for this parameter. Group 2 and 3 keratocytes showed higher nuclear and cytoplasmatic reflectivity in the medium and posterior stroma. Endothelial cells were not affected.
Patients with neoplastic gammopathies showed peculiar alterations of the keratocyte number, which appeared significantly reduced. A follow-up with corneal confocal microscopy of patients with MGUS is suggested as a useful tool to identify peripheral tissue alterations linked to possible neoplastic disease development.
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