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Swati S. More, James M. Beach, Robert Vince; Early Detection of Amyloidopathy in Alzheimer's Mice by Hyperspectral Endoscopy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(7):3231-3238. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.15-17406.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To describe a spectral imaging system for small animal studies based on noninvasive endoscopy of the retina, and to present time-resolved spectral changes from live Alzheimer's mice prior to cognitive decline, corroborating our previous in vitro findings.
Topical endoscope fundus imaging was modified to use a machine vision camera and tunable wavelength system for acquiring monochromatic images across the visible to near-infrared spectral range. Alzheimer's APP/PS1 mice and age-matched, wild-type mice were imaged monthly from months 3 through 8 to assess changes in the fundus reflection spectrum. Optical changes were fit to Rayleigh light scatter models as measures of amyloid aggregation.
Good quality spectral images of the central retina were obtained. Short-wavelength reflectance from Alzheimer's mice retinae showed significant reduction over time compared to wild-type mice. Optical changes were consistent with an increase in Rayleigh light scattering in neural retina due to soluble Aβ1–42 aggregates. The changes in light scatter showed a monotonic increase in soluble amyloid aggregates over a 6-month period, with significant build up occurring at 7 months.
Hyperspectral imaging technique can be brought inexpensively to the study of retinal changes caused by Alzheimer's disease progression in live small animals. A similar previous finding of reduction in the light reflection over a range of wavelengths in isolated Alzheimer's mice retinae, was reproducible in the living Alzheimer's mice. The technique presented here has a potential for development as an early Alzheimer's retinal diagnostic test in humans, which will support the treatment outcome.
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