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Kaoru Fujinami, Shuhei Kameya, Sachiko Kikuchi, Shinji Ueno, Mineo Kondo, Takaaki Hayashi, Kei Shinoda, Shigeki Machida, Kazuki Kuniyoshi, Yuichi Kawamura, Masakazu Akahori, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Satoshi Katagiri, Ayami Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Sakuramoto, Yoko Ozawa, Kazuo Tsubota, Kunihiko Yamaki, Atsushi Mizota, Hiroko Terasaki, Yozo Miyake, Takeshi Iwata, Kazushige Tsunoda; Novel RP1L1 Variants and Genotype–Photoreceptor Microstructural Phenotype Associations in Cohort of Japanese Patients With Occult Macular Dystrophy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(11):4837-4846. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.16-19670.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To determine the clinical and genetic characteristics of Japanese patients with occult macular dystrophy (OMD) in a nationwide multicenter study.
Twenty-three patients from 21 families with clinically diagnosed OMD were studied at 10 institutions throughout Japan. Ophthalmologic examinations including spectral-domain optic coherence tomography were performed. Patients were classified into two phenotype groups: a classical group having both blurred ellipsoid zone and absence of interdigitation zone of the photoreceptors, and a nonclassical group lacking at least one of these two features. Whole-exome sequencing, direct sequencing, and in silico molecular analysis were performed to detect the pathogenic RP1L1 variants. Statistical associations between the phenotype and genotypes based on the presence of pathogenic RP1L1 variants were investigated.
There were 12 families with the classical findings and 9 families with the nonclassical findings. Nine pathogenic RP1L1 missense variants were identified in 12 families (57%) including three reported variants, namely, p.R45W, p.S1199C, and p.G1200A, and six novel variants, p.G221R, p.T1194M, p.T1196I, p.G1200D, p.G1200V, and p.V1201G. The pathogenic missense variants in seven families (33%) were located between amino acid numbers 1196 and 1201. A significant association was found between the photoreceptor microstructural phenotypes and molecular genotypes.
The spectrum of the morphologic phenotypes and pathogenic RP1L1 variants was documented in a well-characterized Japanese cohort with OMD. A unique motif including six amino acids (1196–1201) downstream of the doublecortin domain could be a hot spot for RP1L1 pathogenic variants. The significant association of the morphologic phenotypes and genotypes indicates that there are two types of pathophysiology underlying the occult macular dysfunction syndrome: a hereditary OMD with the classical phenotype (Miyake's disease), and a nonhereditary OMD-like syndrome with progressive occult maculopathy.
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