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Sarwar Zahid, Rosa Dolz-Marco, K. Bailey Freund, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Kunal Dansingani, Fatimah Gilani, Nitish Mehta, Emma Young, Meredith R. Klifto, Bora Chae, Lawrence A. Yannuzzi, Joshua A. Young; Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(11):4940-4947. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.16-19656.
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We used fractal dimensional analysis to analyze retinal vascular disease burden in eyes with diabetic retinopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
A retrospective study was performed of 13 eyes with diabetic retinopathy without diabetic macular edema and 56 control eyes. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were acquired using the RTVue XR Avanti. Automated segmentation was obtained through the superficial and deep capillary plexuses for each eye. Grayscale OCTA images were standardized and binarized using ImageJ. Fractal box-counting analyses were performed using Fractalyse. Fractal dimensions (FD) as well as software-generated vascular density analyses of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses were compared between diabetic and control eyes using 2-tailed t-tests and 1-way multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) analyses.
The superficial and deep plexuses from diabetic and control eyes were analyzed. The average FD for diabetic eyes was significantly lower than control eyes for the superficial (P = 4.513 × 10−3) and deep (P = 2.653 × 10−3) capillary plexuses. In diabetic eyes, the vascular density also was significantly reduced in the superficial (P = 8.068 × 10−5) and deep (P = 3.120 × 10−6) capillary plexuses. One-way MANOVA showed a significant difference between diabetic and control eyes.
The OCTA FD is significantly reduced in the superficial and deep capillary plexuses in eyes with diabetic retinopathy. Applying fractal analysis to OCTA imaging holds the potential to establish quantitative parameters for microvascular pathology.
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