September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
A New Space-time Model of Vision
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Caiping Hu
    Ophthalmology, Zhengzhou Eye Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
    Visual Physiology, Zhengzhou Eye Institute, Zhengzhou, China
  • Xuemin Jin
    Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
  • Jun Yuan
    Ophthalmology, Zhengzhou Eye Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
  • Malcolm Slaughter
    Physiology and Biophysics, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Caiping Hu, None; Xuemin Jin, None; Jun Yuan, None; Malcolm Slaughter, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 2751. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Caiping Hu, Xuemin Jin, Jun Yuan, Malcolm Slaughter; A New Space-time Model of Vision. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):2751.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Purpose : The new findings in the intrinsic electrophysiology and light responses of retinal bipolar and ganglion cells suggest a new visual encoding model. This model could explain symptoms and signs of retinal diseases in human. We try to suggest this kind of model according to our research results in visual science and ophthalmology.

Methods : We use the geometric and physical principles in explaining the light perceptions in retina. The rod/cone and melanopsin-expressed ganglion photoreceptors and their structures match the focused light source after the refractive system. A model system of spatiotemporal navigation in the light world fits these basic and clinical data well.

Results : We define a four-dimensional light cone focused in the whole layer retina as the basic unit of light perception in retina. The conventional rod/cone photoreceptors sense the top part of the light cone while the melanopsin-expressed ganglion photoreceptors perceive its base, mainly time dimension. As a exquisite navigating organ in human and animal, the space localization with high resolution is mainly carried out by rod/cone-bipolar system. The ganglion photoreceptors manage time navigation (including day/night cycle and short-term period). The trig functions can explain the graded ON/OFF signal system for spatial localization in retinal bipolar cells. A series of more complicated functions, describing the temporal dimension, could grasp the spike signal system (including Ca2+ and Na+ spikes) in both the rod/cone-bipolar and ganglion photoreceptor pathways. The two perpendicular photoreceptor systems are designed for the four-dimensional light cone. Multiple parallel pathways in the curved retina are exploited to encode the spatiotemporal localization of four-dimension light cone according to relativity.

Conclusions : Eye is a spatiotemporal navigating organ which is designed according to the spatiotemporal relativity theory.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.



This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.