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Kendra Clemons, Michael E Migliori; Environmental Risk Factors for the Development of Concurrent Involutional Lower Lid Entropion and Upper Lid Ptosis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):714.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To identify environmental risk factors associated with the development of concurrent involutional lower lid entropion and upper lid ptosis.
After receiving institutional review board approval from Rhode Island Hospital, we reviewed the medical records of patients referred to three oculoplastic surgeons for evaluation of involutional entropion from January 2009 to Januarry 2014. We exckuded oatuebts with previous eyelid or intraocular surgery, trauma, and thyroid eye disease. We collected patient's age, gender, ethnicity, medical comorbidities, smoking history, alcohol use, and the marginal distance reflex (MRD1). Visually significant ptosis was 2 millimeters (mm) or less. We analyzed the data using chi-square test, t-test, and the factorial generalized estimating equation (p< 0.05).
There were 181 records that met our inclusion criteria; 56 patients were exclided; 125 were entered into the study. The prevalence of ptosis and involutional entropion was 30.6% (38); 18 (15%) patients had never used tobacco, 37 (29.7%) patients reported tobacco use (p<0.05); 27 (22%) reported alcohol use and 28 (23%) reported no alcohol use (p=0.9332). The mean MRD1 in patients that reported neither alcohol nor tobacco use was 1.8 mm (p<0.05). The mean MRD1 in patients that reported alcohol use was 2.9 mm (p< 0.05); the mean MRD1 in patients that reported tobacco use was 0.9 mm (p<0.05), which was visually significant ptosis. The mean MRD1 for patients that reported both tobacco and alcohol use was 1.3 mm (p< 0.05).
Smoking may play a role in the development of concurrent involutional lower lid entropion and upper lid ptosis.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.
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