September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Para-Inflammation- what is it and why might it be important
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Heping Xu
    Queens University, Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Heping Xu, Novaliq (F), Novartis (F)
  • Footnotes
    Support  Fight for Sight (1361/1362; 1425/1426); Dunhill Medical Trust (R188/0211), Research into Ageing (322), and National Eye Research Center (SCIAD 061).
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, No Pagination Specified. doi:
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      Heping Xu; Para-Inflammation- what is it and why might it be important. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 201657(12):.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Presentation Description : Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The extent of immune response is in parallel with the level of tissue insult. Under chronic stress conditions such as aging or diabetes, tissues may suffer from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age/or disease. As a result, the immune system undergoes low levels of activation (para-inflammation) in order to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The presentation will discuss the basic principles of retinal immune responses to endogenous chronic insults, and the difference between beneficial para-inflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of degenerative retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.


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