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Shi Song Rong, Lok Yee Tsui, Li Ma, Jian Li, Chi Pui Calvin Pang, Li Jia Chen; Cigarette smoking increases intraocular pressure and risk of primary open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):2576.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on intraocular pressure (IOP) and risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), using systematic review and meta-analysis.
We searched in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using structured search strategies. Cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that investigated the association between cigarette smoking and IOP and/or the risk of POAG were included into the meta-analysis. Mean difference (MD) in IOP and summary odds ratio (OR) for the risk of POAG between subjects with and without smoking habit/history were calculated using the fixed-effect model if there was mild inter-study heterogeneity (I2≤25% and P for Q statistics >0.05); otherwise, the random-effect model was used. We assessed the quality of each study and performed sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness of the results.
Among the 681 citations yielded from our search, the effects of smoking on IOP and the risk of POAG were evaluated in 14 and 27 studies, respectively, involving a total of 172,314 subjects. The meta-analysis showed that smokers (current and former) had a higher mean IOP than non-smokers (MD~1.3 mmHg; P<5×10-10; I2=60%). Moreover, current smokers had an increased risk of POAG (OR~1.2; P<0.05; I2=21%), comparing with former (OR=1.08; P>0.2; I2=7%) and any smokers (OR=1.07; P>0.4; I2=56%). Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test showed there was no significant publication bias, and the sensitivity analysis revealed that the results were robust.
Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased IOP and risk of POAG.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.
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