September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Christine TANGUY
    ophtalmologie, chu morvan, Brest, France, France
  • Charlotte HUGNY LARROQUE
    ophtalmologie, chu morvan, Brest, France, France
  • Stephanie FERRAGUT
    LATIM, Brest, France
  • Mathieu Lamard
    LATIM, Brest, France
  • Beatrice Cochener
    ophtalmologie, chu morvan, Brest, France, France
    LATIM, Brest, France
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Christine TANGUY, None; Charlotte HUGNY LARROQUE, None; Stephanie FERRAGUT, None; Mathieu Lamard, None; Beatrice Cochener, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 3966. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Christine TANGUY, Charlotte HUGNY LARROQUE, Stephanie FERRAGUT, Mathieu Lamard, Beatrice Cochener; 3D CINEMA AND VISUAL DISCOMFORT. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):3966. doi:

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : Three-Dimensionnal (3D) displays, have taken a new lease of life recently, notably with 3D cinema. This technology gives tolerance issues : general and ocular discomfort or 3D asthenopia. Our goal was to evaluate the degree of Three-Dimensionnal (3D) ocular and general discomfort caused by 3D cinema, its relationship with abnormal binocular vision and convergence insufficiency and its links to accommodation.

Methods : METHODS : Patients with amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia and convergence insufficiency were enrolled in the study (55 subjetcs). Normal volunteers were enrolled in the control group (17 subjects). Best-corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereoacuity were measured. A questionnaire was conducted to evaluate the degree of ocular and general discomfort and 3D perception the subject felt while watching 3D movie.

Results : RESULTS : 72 subjects were enrolled in this study : 17 normal volunteers, 11 with amblyopia, 17 with tropia, 5 with intermittent exotropia, 4 with phoria, 13 with anisométropia et 5 with convergence insufficiency. Ocular and systemic discomfort was not different between the different groups (p>5%). However, people with abnormal flipper test (ie week accommodative endurance) have more 3D discomfort than people with normal flipper test (13 ± 5,82 versus 5,18 ± 1,55, p=0,021). Moreover, people with poor accommodative power have less 3D discomfort than people with poor or excessive accommodative power (10 ± 3,3, 4 ± 2,4 and 7 ± 3,08 respectively, p=0.0151).

Conclusions : CONCLUSIONS : There is no difference in term of 3D discomfort between the subjects with abnormal binocular visual and normal subjects. However, people with poor accommodative endurance have more discomfort, while people with normal accommodative power have less visual discomfort.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.


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