September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Spectacle use in a rural population in the state of Telangana in South India
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Srinivas Marmamula
    GPR ICARE, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
  • Rajesh Challa
    GPR ICARE, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
  • Eswara Rao K
    GPR ICARE, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
  • Rohit Chandramohan Khanna
    GPR ICARE, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Srinivas Marmamula, None; Rajesh Challa, None; Eswara Rao K, None; Rohit Khanna, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  CBM Germany and Hyderabad Eye Research Foundation, India
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 3972. doi:
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      Srinivas Marmamula, Rajesh Challa, Eswara Rao K, Rohit Chandramohan Khanna; Spectacle use in a rural population in the state of Telangana in South India. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):3972.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : To assess the prevalence and patterns of spectacle use among those aged ≥ 40 years in the south Indian state of Telangana.

Methods : A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in which 6150 people were enumerated from 123 clusters in the two districts of Telangana state (Adilabad and Mahbubnagar) using a two stage cluster random sampling methodology. A questionnaire was used to collect information on current and previous use of spectacles, type of spectacles and details of the spectacles provider.

Results : Among the 5881 participants examined, 53.6% were women, 62% had no formal education. The prevalence of current spectacle use was 28.9% (95% CI: 27.6 – 30.0). It was higher in Adilabad (30.5%) compared to Mahbubnagar (27.1%) (p=0.004). On applying multiple logistic regression, compared to those aged 40 to 49 years, 50 – 59 year old participants had double the odds (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.7 – 2.3) and those aged 60 years and older had three times higher odds for use of spectacles (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.5 – 3.4 in 60 – 69 year old age group and OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.4 – 3.6 among 70 years and older age group respectively). Women were twice likely to use spectacles compared to men (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.8 – 2.3). When compared to subjects who had no education, those who had school education (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 2.9 – 4.0) and those who studied under graduate or above had higher odds (OR: 6.4: 95% CI: 4.7 – 8.6) for current use of spectacles. Compared to participants from Mahbubnagar, those living in Adilabad had higher odds for spectacle use (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3 – 1.7). Bifocals were the most commonly used type of spectacles (56.3%) and private eye clinics (70.3%) were the leading service providers. About two-thirds of those using spectacles paid between 300 to 599 rupees (USD 5 to 10) for their spectacles. The prevalence of past spectacle use was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.1 – 8.5). Scratches on lenses / broken spectacles were the leading reason for the participants to discontinue their spectacles. The Spectacle coverage was 64.6%.

Conclusions : We reported on patterns of spectacle use from two districts in Indian state of Telangana using a large representative sample and a high response rate. About two thirds of those who needed spectacles, were using them, suggestive of good primary eye care coverage in the two districts studied.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.


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