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Leandro B C Teixeira, Richard R Dubielzig; Ocular metastasis in dogs: a retrospective study of 320 cases. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):4114.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To characterize the clinicopathological features of 320 cases of metastatic tumors to the eye in dogs.
320 canine cases of ocular neoplasia diagnosed as metastatic to the eye were identified in the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW) database. Inclusion of cases was based on clinical history, histologic type, ocular infiltration and distribution pattern of the neoplastic tissue and identification of primary neoplastic mass. Tumors of hematopoietic origin were excluded. Patient data, clinical history, and follow-up information were recorded. Enucleated eyes were formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded and sections were stained with H&E and multiple IHC stains.
The median age of the affected animals was 10 years (range 2.6-16). Females represented 49.6% and males 50.4% of the cases. The most common breeds affected were the Labrador retriever (16.6%), Golden retriever (11.9%) and Rottweiler (4.4%). In 5.7% of cases OU was affected and OS only and OD only in 48.9 and 45.8% respectively. The most common ophthalmic findings were hyphema, anterior uveal/choroidal infiltrate and masses, synechiae and secondary glaucoma. Sarcomas were 43.1%, carcinomas 32.5% and melanomas 13.1% of cases, the remaining 11.6% were undifferentiated neoplasms. Of the carcinomas nasal/respiratory adenocarcinomas followed by mammary solid carcinomas and squamous cells carcinomas (most often from the oral cavity) were the most common tumors. The most common sarcomas were splenic and cardiac atrial hemangiosarcomas, apenducular osteosarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas. The main primary sites for metastatic melanomas were oral cavity and digits. The most affected ocular tissues in decreasing order were iris and ciliary body, choroid, retina and orbital connective tissue and the most common pattern of tumor distribution was carpeting uveal surfaces and/or multifocally infiltrating the uveal stroma and vessels. The most common secondary microscopic lesions were intraocular hemorrhage, fibrovascular membranes and synechiae and glaucomatous optic nerve and retinal atropy.
Metastatic tumors to the eye are a relatively common cause of enucleation in dogs affecting older dogs of multiple breeds with no gender preference. Hemangiosarcomas, digital and oral melanomas and respiratory carcinomas are the most common primary tumors.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.
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