September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Gender differences in ARMD
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Francesco Bandello
    Dep. Ophthalmogy Univ. Milan . AO S.Raffaele, Milan, Italy
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Francesco Bandello, ALLERGAN (C), BAUSCH AND LOMB (C), BAYER (C), FARMILA-THEA (C), NOVARTIS (C), ZEISS (C)
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, No Pagination Specified. doi:
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      Francesco Bandello; Gender differences in ARMD. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):No Pagination Specified.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Presentation Description : In recent years, special attention has been paid towards gender specific medicine, as sex steroid hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and androgen) have been proven to affect lacrimal glands, ocular surface, crystalline lens, retina and choroidal network anatomy and function. Therefore, sex, menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and menopause or andropause, where the hormonal milieu changes, may affect vision and may be either a protective or risk factor for several ocular conditions, including age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). A recent metanalysis has found a slightly higher incidence of late ARMD in women compared with men, with a more consistent difference among the neovascular subtype (NV-ARMD) rather than the atrophic one. Older age at menarche and earlier menopause may be responsible of greater hazard of advanced disease, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) play a protective effect, especially against NV-ARMD. Hoewever, conflicting data have been published so far and information on the possible association between hormonal level and ARMD is sparse and non-conclusive.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.


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