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Daniel Agraz, Mohamed Kamel Soliman, Thomas Williams, Kim So Young, Sachin Kedar, Donny Suh; Characteristics of Intracranial Hypertension in Pediatric Population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):4550.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The risk factors and characteristics of pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are not fully elucidated. Data from children with IIH were analyzed to define the risk factors and features of pediatric IIH.
A retrospective chart review of 26 children, 19 years or younger, diagnosed with IIH at a single center. Definite IIH is defined as: papilledema, normal neurological exam, normal neuroimaging, normal CSF, and an opening pressure > 28 mmHg. Probable IIH encompass the latter criteria except for papilledema. Patients were further subdivided into 2 groups based on their age: ≤ 12 years, and > 12 years of age. Gender distribution, obesity and history of allergy were analyzed among the 2 age groups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.
19 patients with definite IIH and 7 patients with probable IIH were included in the study. The percentage of females in the younger group (n= 13) and older group (n=13) was 38% and 85%, respectively. Overall, the obesity rate in all patients was 50% (13/26) compared to 18% in general pediatric population (p value <0.001). Female obesity rates in the older age group were significantly higher compared to general population (p<0.001). 46% of patients had a prior history of environmental or medications allergy. In patients with an intracranial pressure greater than 40mm Hg (n=11), the most common finding was headache (81%), followed by diplopia (27%), and blurred vision (18%). Papilledema was present in 55%, 83% and 81% of patients with opening CSF pressure of <35, 35-40 and >40 mmHg, respectively.
Pediatric IIH was overall more common among females, especially in older age group. Obesity is more frequent in pediatric patients with IIH, particularly older females. High CSF pressures (>35mmHg) are more likely to be associated with papilledema. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential association between hypersensitivity and pediatric IIH.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.
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