September 2016
Volume 57, Issue 12
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   September 2016
Preliminary data on the prevalence of Keratoconus among Children and Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Wafa Al-Otaibi
    Optometry, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    College of Health Sciences, Salus University, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Haya Al-Farhan
    Optometry, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Nikki Hafezi
    Light for Sight Foundation, Zurich, ZH, Switzerland
  • Farhad Hafezi
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Wafa Al-Otaibi, None; Haya Al-Farhan, None; Nikki Hafezi, None; Farhad Hafezi, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 6213. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Wafa Al-Otaibi, Haya Al-Farhan, Nikki Hafezi, Farhad Hafezi; Preliminary data on the prevalence of Keratoconus among Children and Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):6213.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Purpose : With the development of new treatment modalities to stop keratoconus progression, early detection and screening in children and adolescents become key elements. Little is known about the prevalence of keratoconus among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East. Epidemiological studies reported from neighboring countries suggest that the prevalence might be substantially higher than the prevalence of 1:2000 reported for Western Europe and the USA.

Methods : Prospective, Observational, Cross-Sectional and Multi-Site Study to assess the prevalence of KC in Riyadh, Saudi Arabbia, based on Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR, Oculus Instruments, Wetzlar, Germany). Study sites are King Saud University, King Khalid University Hospital, and Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Male and female subjects, aged 6 to 22 years from all ethnicities, and seeking non-ophthalmic treatment were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were pre-existing ocular disease, a history of ocular surgery or contact lens wearing in the last 14 days prior to the examination, as well as pregnancy and nursing. Targeted sample size is 595 subjects (1190 eyes). We defined KC by at least two of the following: posterior elevation >20 μm at a reference sphere of 8 mm, corneal pachymetry <500 μm, central keratomety value (K value) >48.0 D and if the keratoconus index (KI) is more than 1. Statistical analysis: Prevalence of KC calculated as a percentage: (Number of KC cases detected / Total sample).

Results : The preliminary number of participants is 99 subjects (192 eyes). 75% of the patients were females, with a mean age of 18.7 years. All patients were of Saudi ethnicity. The number of KC cases was 3, leading to a preliminary prevalence of 1:33.

Conclusions : Our preliminary data suggest that the prevalence of KC among children and adolescents in Riyadh in Saudi Arabia might be considerably higher than the numbers reported from similar studies on other countries. We expect to enroll the remaining 496 subjects by April 2016.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.


This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.