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Tatyana Spektor, Jack Cohen, Robert Kimura, Joseph Santamaria, Tovah Schwartz; Demographics and Comorbidities of Subjects with Retinopathy of Prematurity Requiring Treatment. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(12):6309.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
While certain risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) have become well established, numerous other factors have been studied with conflicting results in the literature. In a retrospective chart review, we evaluated the demographics and comorbidities of ROP patients who required treatment, in order to gain insight into potential risk and protective factors for this high-risk neonatal population.
All subjects from 1999-2014 with ROP who required treatment were included in this study. The subjects consisted of a cohort in a tertiary care facility in Chicago, Illinois who were evaluated and treated by one retina specialist. As the study spanned a time fame of 19 years, criteria for treatment were dependent on the guidelines that were available at the time that treatment was decided. Demographic data as well as various prenatal and postnatal comorbidities were evaluated.
Our data included 94 subjects (186 eyes) who received treatment for ROP. 77 of these subjects underwent laser therapy, while the rest received either intravitreal injections (Bevacizumab or Ranibizumab) or a surgical procedure. Gestational age for the patient population varied from <24 weeks up to 29 weeks with 60% of subjects having a gestational age ≤24 weeks. All subjects had a very low birth weight (<1500 grams), and 75% had an extremely low birth weight (<750 grams). As expected, oxygenation rates were high with 84% of subjects receiving 76 or more days of oxygen supplementation. Interestingly, 33% of the subjects were exclusively formula fed. In comparison, when evaluating the very low birth weight neonatal patients in our institution, only 5% have been exclusively formula fed. For all formula-fed neonates in our institution, the incidence of developing ROP that requires treatment was 0.203. In comparison, for all neonates receiving at least a partial breast milk diet, the incidence of ROP requiring treatment was 0.022.
The incidence of ROP requiring treatment was nearly ten-fold higher in exclusively formula-fed infants compared to infants with a diet including at least partial breast milk consumption. This is suggestive of a protective effect of breast-feeding on the development of ROP.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016.
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