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Giuseppe Rovere, Francisco M. Nadal-Nicolás, Paloma Sobrado-Calvo, David García-Bernal, Maria Paz Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso; Topical Treatment With Bromfenac Reduces Retinal Gliosis and Inflammation After Optic Nerve Crush. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016;57(14):6098-6106. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20425.
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To study the effect of topical administration of bromfenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on retinal gliosis and levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) after complete optic nerve crush (ONC).
Adult albino rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8 retinas/group): (1) intact, (2) intact and bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days), (3) ONC (7 days), and (4) ONC (7 days) + bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days). Animals from groups 3 and 4 were imaged in vivo with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) before the procedure and 15 minutes, 3, 5, or 7 days later. Retinas from all groups were analyzed by immunodetection, Western blotting, or enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA).
Quantification of Brn3a (brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A) +RGCs (retinal ganglion cells) in cross sections showed that bromfenac treatment does not accelerate ONC-induced degeneration. Cellular retinaldehyde binding protein 1 regulation indicated that bromfenac improves retinal homeostasis in injured retinas. Spectral-domain OCT showed that the thickness of the retina and the retinal nerve fiber layer at 7 days post ONC was significantly reduced in bromfenac-treated animals when compared to untreated animals. In agreement with these data, hypertrophy of astrocytes and Müller cells and expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin were greatly diminished by bromfenac treatment. While no changes in cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme COX1 and COX2 expression were observed, there was a significant increase of PGE2 after ONC that was controlled by bromfenac treatment.
Topical administration of bromfenac is an efficient and noninvasive treatment to control the retinal gliosis and release of proinflammatory mediators that follow a massive insult to the RGC population.
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