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Alison L Huckenpahler, Alexander E Salmon, Benjamin S Sajdak, Alfredo Dubra, Joseph Carroll; Imaging the porcine retina using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):313. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
We sought to examine the living porcine retina using an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) due to its physiological similarity to humans.
A wild-type domestic swine (age: 5 months) was imaged on five occasions using a custom AOSLO, covering an area between 5° and 30° nasal to the optic nerve. Anesthesia was induced using telazol (6 mg/kg) and propofol (2 mg/kg) and maintained using 2-4% isoflurane. Body temperature was regulated using a Hot-dog convection heating pad (Augustine Temperature Management, Eden Prairie, MN) set to 39°C. Pupils were dilated with one drop each of 2.5% phenylephrine and 1% tropicamide, and isotonic saline drops were used during imaging to maintain corneal hydration. Dark-field, non-confocal split-detection, and confocal AOSLO images were captured using 790nm light. We obtained horizontal and vertical montages at 25° and 7-22° from the optic nerve, respectively. Eccentricity-matched regions were identified at separate time-points. Estimates of cone and RPE density were obtained at 20 separate retinal locations along these strips.
Cone photoreceptors were seen on confocal and split-detection, while the RPE was visualized with dark-field imaging. An average cone density of 12,147 ± 952 cones/mm2 was observed, which is consistent with previous histological data.1 RPE cells for the same areas were found to have an average density of 1,736 ± 105 cells/mm2, which is also consistent with histological data.2,3 Cone density differed in eccentricity-matched images by ~1.3% and RPE density differed by ~6.0% between imaging sessions.
The photoreceptor mosaic and RPE of the porcine retina can be imaged consistently using AOSLO. The ability to non-invasively obtain quantitative estimates of cone and RPE cell density could enable longitudinal studies of retinal disease and treatment efficacy.1Hendrickson PMID:120760872Mannerström PMID: 118698823Zhang PMID:22201976
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
(A) The dashed box on the SLO image of the pig retina shows an area imaged with AOSLO in panels B-D. (B) The confocal image shows cone waveguiding, while (C) the split-detection image shows the corresponding cone inner segments. (D) Dark-field images show the RPE, though some “bleed-through” of cones can be seen. Scale bar: 100µm.
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