June 2017
Volume 58, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2017
Assessing the impact of adjuvant methods in cataract surgery based on 3x3 crossover experiment.
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Suvin Choi
    Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)
  • Sung-Kun Chung
    Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)
  • Sang-Gue Park
    Applied Statistics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)
  • Hyung-Hwan Lee
    Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)
  • Lorne Bellan
    Ophthalmology, Misericordia Health Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Suvin Choi, None; Sung-Kun Chung, None; Sang-Gue Park, None; Hyung-Hwan Lee, None; Lorne Bellan, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2017, Vol.58, 794. doi:
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      Suvin Choi, Sung-Kun Chung, Sang-Gue Park, Hyung-Hwan Lee, Lorne Bellan; Assessing the impact of adjuvant methods in cataract surgery based on 3x3 crossover experiment.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):794.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : The aim was to examine the impact of music effect compared to other type of adjuvant methods by performing cold-pressor task (CPT) using 3x3 crossover design on naïve normal subjects. This is a follow-up study for validating music effect of reducing pain in cataract surgery.

Methods : 50 subjects of sample size was calculated with 5% significance level and 80% power. In order to control the variability, subjects were randomly assigned to Group 1 (control (C), news (N), music (M)), Group 2 (M, C, N), and Group 3 (N, M, C) in 3x3 crossover design and measured pain intensity (PI), and pain tolerance (PT) as responses. The subjects were also surveyed anxiety sensitivity inventory (ASI), pain anxiety symptom scale (PASS) and CPT for analyzing the causal relationship of pain responses and anxiety levels.

Results : Statistical analysis was performed with SAS v 9.4. Subjects average age was 25.7 (SD=±2.9, Range= 20~34) of which 48% were male and 52% female. Average PT for C, N, M were 14.87, 16.33, 20.45 secs and PI were 6.7, 6.64, 5.89 respectively. Result of F-test showing the difference in average PT and PI among 3 groups was significant (p=0.0001, p=0.012 respectively). Bonferoni post hoc confirmed that M-treatment was most effective compared to C or N on PT, PI (p<0.0001, p=0.0023 respectively). The hypothesis that PT would be longer under M-treatment on groups with higher ASI and PASS was partially confirmed (p=0.38 and p=0.027, respectively). However, the hypothesis that PI would be lower under M on group with higher ASI or PASS was not supported (p=0.45 and p=0.245, respectively).

Conclusions : It was confirmed that music has the most positive impact on PT and PI compared to other adjuvant methods in 3-treatment, 3-period, 3-sequence crossover design. In addition, the importance of taking into account anxiety sensitivity and symptoms was shown as individuals’ pain coping ability affects responses to pain. This result can be used in cataract surgery procedures which are accompanied by pain.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.


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