June 2017
Volume 58, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2017
Color Contrast in the Labelling of Preservative-Free Artificial Tears and Internet Popularity
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Margaret Wang
    Psychology, Santa Clara University, San Jose, California, United States
  • Gloria Wu
    Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, United States
  • Mary Gao
    Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States
  • Thomas Le
    Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States
  • Bonnibel Bautista
    Psychology, Saint Louis University, Baguio, Philippines
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Margaret Wang, None; Gloria Wu, None; Mary Gao, None; Thomas Le, None; Bonnibel Bautista, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2017, Vol.58, 2689. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Margaret Wang, Gloria Wu, Mary Gao, Thomas Le, Bonnibel Bautista; Color Contrast in the Labelling of Preservative-Free Artificial Tears and Internet Popularity. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):2689.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : Purpose: Is there good color contrast in the "preservative free" label of artificial tears labels?

Color packaging of preservative-free tears are commonly found on the internet. Does the color contrast influence search engine optimization? Internet standards about color contrasts are found in Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0(WXAG).

Methods : The Paciello Group Color Contrast Analyser software program (CCA) evaluates relative contrasts by using equation (L1 + 0.05) / (L2 + 0.05), where L1 is the relative luminance of the lighter of the colors, and L2 is the relative luminance of the darker of the colors. Using this program, the color contrast of the front box was reviewed using the guidelines outlined in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG). Color contrast as defined by WCAG is the difference in color between the background and the text in normal usage1.
According to WCAG: for print font less than 14 pt bold or non-bolded 18 pt: AA, AAA is designated "lowest" and "highest" standard for "enhanced" visual clarity, respectively. Similarly, for large font, equal to or greater than 14 bold, 18 font, AA, AAA are assigned "lowest," "highest", respectively for web content accessibility guidelines. CCA assigns "pass" or "fail" to the contrast and assigns a numeric value where the minimum level of contrast is 4.5:1 for the smaller text.

Results : Results:
19 most popular products found on Google Trends: 11 brands (Alcon, Allergan, Bausch and Lomb) vs 9 generic (CVS, Walgreens).
Color contrast for the Minimum contrast according to the WCAG for the 19 products show that only 4/19 passed the minimum level of 4.5:1. For larger text, (font size 14 point or larger), ratio 7:1, only 6 /19 products passed this standard. The generic products had 1/9 passing WCAG test for large font. For the branded, 5/11 passed the contrast sensitivity test.
Google trends show that 100% of the branded tears show up on search engines vs the generic products.

Conclusions : Conclusion: Despite uniform poor color contrast sensitivity in the labels of all artificial tears studied, more of the branded products have better color contrasts than generic. More work can be done about color contrast labeling in order for artificial tears' packaging to be visually accessible for all consumers,of all ages and visual demands.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.




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