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Leidiane Adriano Pereira, Etiene Lorriane de Souza Persona, Jean Pablo de Souza dos Santos, Caio Cezar Elias, Talles Peterson Cavalcante Oriá, Laura Braga, Eduardo M Rocha; Prevalence of dry eye in Brazil: a domiciliary epidemiological study using a short questionnaire. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):2699.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Dry eye disease (DED) has a high but also variable prevalence worldwide. There are no published epidemiological studies on the prevalence of DED in the Latin American population. The purpose of this study are: a) to quantify the prevalence of DED using a short questionnaire (SQ) and domiciliary visits in a small town in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil; b) to verify the sensitivity and specificity of the mentioned questionnaire; and c) to identify dry eye associated factors.
This was a cross-sectional study using the SQ previously described and its positivity criteria (Gulati A et al, 2006). One-hundred-eighty participants were recruited through domiciliary visits among residents of Cássia dos Coqueiros-SP, ≥ 40 years, of both sexes. A random sample of 62 participants was submitted to an ocular exam. DED diagnosis was confirmed with the following parameters: Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score > 20, or Schirmer's test (ST) < 10 mm or tear film break-up time (TFBUT) ≤ 6 s. A list of 12 potential DED associated factors was questioned.
We interviewed 133 (73.9 %) women and 47 (26.1 %) men. The mean age of participants was 62.8 ± 13.1 years old. The SQ was positive for dry eye diagnosis in 35 (19.4 %) participants and negative in 145 (80.6 %) participants. Of the 35 participants with positive SQ, 27 (27/133 or 20.3 %) were women and 8 (8/47 or 17 %) were the men (p<0.05). Compared to other tests for DED, the SQ presented sensitivity of 0.88 (0.7-0.99) and specificity of 0.75 (0.53-0.88) for OSDI > 20, sensitivity of 0.7 (0.48-0.85) and specificity of 0.48 (0.3-0.66) compared to ST < 10 mm, and sensitivity of 0.7 (0.49-0.91) and specificity of 0.48 (0.31-0.65) compared to compared with TFBUT ≤ 6 s. Among the 12 potential factors associated with DED, the following were positive: Menopause, with OR 2.39 (CI 95% 1.07-5.35), eye surgery with OR 3.6 (CI 95% 1.62-7.98) and dyslipidemia with OR 4.05 (CI 95% 1.9-8.6).
The prevalence of DED in the southeast of Brazil is similar to observed in small to elderly population of small towns around the world. The SQ demonstrated higher agreement with OSDI. The major associated factors are also similar to previously observed. The present work may help to support future studies on the understanding the causes and promote better treatments for DED.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
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