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Xuejuan Jiang, Douglas Stram, Kristina Tarczy-Hornoch, Joanne Katz, Seang-Mei Saw, Paul Mitchell, Kathryn Ailsa Rose, Rohit Varma; Risk Factors for Different Severities of Myopia and Hyperopia among Multiethnic Preschool Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):3416. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To identify risk factors associated with different severities of myopia and hyperopia among preschool children using pooled consortium data.
The Pediatric Eye Disease Consortium includes population-based studies of >17,000 6-72 months old children from Los Angeles, CA; Baltimore, MA; Singapore; and Sydney, Australia. Comparable parental interview and ocular examination including cycloplegic autorefraction were performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariate regressions of risk factors for refractive error in the right eye.
Astigmatism, study site, race/ethnicity, age, birth weight, family income, and vision insurance were associated with mild myopia (-0.5D->-2.0D). Children less than 36 months old were >2 times more likely to have mild myopia as older children. Myopia was more common in Baltimore and Singapore. Risk of myopia was highest for African American children, followed by Asians and Hispanic whites, and was lowest for non-Hispanic whites. For moderate/severe myopia (≤-2.0D), astigmatism and race/ethnicity were associated with greater magnitude. There was no age difference in moderate/severe myopia, and maternal alcohol drinking and older age at pregnancy (>35 years) were additional risk factors (ORs, 95% CI: 2.62, 1.07-6.42; and 1.72, 1.06-2.80 respectively). Astigmatism, study site, race/ethnicity, gender, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and lower gestational age were associated with mild hyperopia (+2.0D-<+4.0D). Same factors except gender and age were associated with moderate/severe hyperopia (≥+4.0D) but with greater magnitude. While mild hyperopia was more prevalent before 1 year of age, moderate/severe hyperopia was more common after age 3. ORs associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.11-1.68) and 1.76 (1.13-2.74) for mild and moderate/high hyperopia, respectively. Risk for both types of hyperopia was highest for non-Hispanic and Hispanic white children and lowest for Asians. In addition, family history of strabismus was associated with moderate/high hyperopia (OR, 95% CI: 1.99, 1.21-3.28).
By assembling similarly-designed studies, our consortium provides greater statistical power to identify additional risk factors that were previously undetected. Our results indicate that there are unique contributors to different types and severities of preschool refractive errors.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
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