June 2017
Volume 58, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2017
Objective and Subjective Wavelength Transmission Assessment of EnChroma Glasses
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Nawaf Muneer Almutairi
    Vision Science, Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, United States
  • Saad Aljohani
    Optometry, Qassim University, Buraidah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
  • Naganathan Muthuramalingam
    Optometry, Qassim University, Buraidah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
    Optometry, Salus University , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • James Kundart
    College of Optometry, Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, United States
    Vision Science, Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Nawaf Almutairi, None; Saad Aljohani, None; Naganathan Muthuramalingam, None; James Kundart, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD), Beta Sigma Kappa (BSK)
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2017, Vol.58, 5405. doi:
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      Nawaf Muneer Almutairi, Saad Aljohani, Naganathan Muthuramalingam, James Kundart; Objective and Subjective Wavelength Transmission Assessment of EnChroma Glasses. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):5405.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : Color vision deficiency (CVD) especially the Red-Green type, affects 4 - 8% of male and 0.4% of female populations. There is no cure for color deficiency. However, there are specially tinted lenses marketed to enhance the color contrast for CVD individuals. EnChroma glasses claim to enhance color perception without compromising color interpretation. The aim of this study was to test the overall transmission and wavelength filtering characteristics of EnChroma Cx-14 glasses objectively and determine if they subjectively change the color perception in normal subjects.

Methods : Twenty-five males (aged 20 to 25 years) with normal vision were randomly recruited. Subjective responses of EnChroma, participants were tested by means of the digital version of Ishihara (ColorDx iPad app) and FM100 Hue tests with and without EnChroma glasses. A Ocean Opticsä spectrophotometer was used to measure the spectral transmission of EnChroma Cx-14 glasses. The FM100 tests error scores and time duration to complete the test were recorded, compared and correlated with the Ocean Optics spectral transmission curves.

Results : Spectral transmission of EnChroma Cx-14 showed notching of wavelength starting from 450 nm that dipped down close to 0 from 475 nm to 500 nm, and from 560 nm to 575 nm. Peak sensitivity was not achieved for the wavelength of 420-450 nm. There was a significant (p = 0.018) increase in the mean FM100 test error scores with a shift towards a defect resembling tritanomaly (mean = 35), 95% CI [-94 to 165] with the EnChroma Cx-14 glasses. However, the correlation of time taken to complete the FM100 test with and without EnChroma was stronger (r = 0.82) only for the FM100 plates that test for confusion in the blue orthogonal axis of the CIE chromaticity diagram.

Conclusions : EnChroma Cx-14 glasses are multi-notch filters that modify the wavelength transmission of the observer. Our results show that the EnChroma filters notch the blue region of the visible spectrum consistently and induce a tritan defect in individuals with normal color vision. Future studies are needed to investigate whether EnChroma filters improve the color discrimination in individuals with color vision deficiency.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.


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