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Lauren Renner, Trevor J McGill, Kasie Paul, Emily Johnson, Travis B Smith, John W Erdman, Matthew Kuchan, Martha Neuringer; Development of macular cone density in infant rhesus macaques measured longitudinally in vivo by adaptive optics imaging. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8):5572.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To characterize the development of infant macaque macular cone density longitudinally in vivo over the first 6 postnatal months.
Multimodal retinal imaging was used to define parameters of macular development in 6 fullterm, breast-fed, mother-reared rhesus macaque infants over the first 6 postnatal months. Adaptive optics imaging (ImagineEyes rtx1) was used to quantify central cone density at 1, 4 and 6 months postnatal age in all 6 infants and also at 2 and 3 months in 3. Spectral domain OCT imaging (Heidelberg Spectralis) was conducted at the same timepoints, and axial length measurements obtained with an IOL Master 300 were used to convert visual angle to mm. For adaptive optics imaging, approximately twenty 4 x 4 degree images were collected in order to create a 12 x 12 degree montage of the macula. The foveal center was identified by co-registering the montage with the OCT thickness map. Cone density, measured as deg2 and mm2, was measured using the Imagine Eyes AOdetect Mosaic Software (version 2.0) at every 0.25 degree superior, inferior, nasal and temporal from the foveal center within the central 2 degrees, and at every 0.5 degree at eccentricities up to 5 degrees depending on image quality.
Although cone density at the foveal center is not resolvable in adult monkeys using the Imagine Eyes AO system, it can be resolved in the infant eye due to lower cone density and increased magnification resulting from small eye size. Peak foveal cone density was measurable in 4 of the 6 infants through 4 months of age, but not in any infant by 6 months of age. The average cone density in the foveal center was approximately 96,000 per mm2 (range 88,000 – 116,000) at 1 month of age and 121,000 per mm2 (range 109,000 - 126,000) at 2 - 4 months. In each infant, density measured as cones/mm2 increased from 1 to 2 months but showed little or no further increase through 4 months. However, due to increasing eye size, density in cones/deg2 increased progressively in the central 6 degrees at each time point.
This study provides the first quantitative longitudinal measurement of postnatal macular cone density in primate infants in vivo. These normative data will provide the basis for examining alterations in macular development due to nutritional or genetic manipulations and retinal diseases.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2017 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Baltimore, MD, May 7-11, 2017.
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