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Kummamuri V. Sreelakshmi, Anita Chandra, Subramanian Krishnakumar, Viswanathan Natarajan, Vikas Khetan; Anterior Chamber Invasion in Retinoblastoma: Not an Indication for Adjuvant Chemotherapy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(11):4654-4661. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-22111.
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In retinoblastoma, adjuvant chemotherapy after enucleation is given in eyes with histopathological high-risk features (HRFs) to reduced mortality. Anterior chamber seeds (AC seeds) on histopathological evaluation are a contentious finding. This study attempts to determine the effect of AC seeds on the survival rate.
This is a retrospective case record review. Eyes were divided into four groups: those with neither AC seeds nor HRFs, those with only HRFs, those with only AC seeds, and those with both HRFs and AC seeds. The groups were compared for demographic and clinical features and survival curves were plotted for each.
For the 212 eyes included in the study, mean age was 30.5 ± 36.8 months. Children with only AC seeds were significantly older (75.3 ± 94.6 months) (P = 0.004). Chemotherapy was administered in 81 (38.2%) of 212 eyes; 16 (13.7%) of 117 eyes without HRF and in 65 (68.4%) of 95 eyes with HRFs (P < 0.001). The survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was the highest for the group with only AC seeds, although the difference was not statistically significant.
We conclude that AC seeds do not, by themselves, constitute an independent risk factor for metastasis. These children need not be treated with immediate adjuvant chemotherapy, but, instead, can be followed with regular screening for metastasis. However, AC seeds are seen in only a small proportion of enucleated eyes. A larger study would better validate our study results.
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