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Katherine A. Joltikov, Vinicius M. de Castro, Jose R. Davila, Rohit Anand, Sami M. Khan, Neil Farbman, Gregory R. Jackson, Chris A. Johnson, Thomas W. Gardner; Multidimensional Functional and Structural Evaluation Reveals Neuroretinal Impairment in Early Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(6):BIO277-BIO290. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-21863.
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To test whether quantitative functional tests and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-defined structure can serve as effective tools to diagnose and monitor early diabetic neuroretinal disease.
Fifty-seven subjects with diabetes (23 without diabetic retinopathy [no DR], 19 with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [mild NPDR], 15 with moderate to severe [moderate NPDR]), and 18 controls underwent full ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), e-ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) acuity, and the quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method. Perimetry testing included short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP), standard automated perimetry (SAP), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and rarebit perimetry (RBP).
ETDRS acuity and RBP were not sensitive for functional differences among subjects with diabetes. AULCSF, a metric of qCSF, was reduced in diabetics with moderate compared to mild NPDR (P = 0.03), and in subjects with no DR compared to controls (P = 0.04). SWAP and SAP mean deviation (MD) and foveal threshold (FT) were reduced in moderate compared to mild NPDR (SWAP, MD P = 0.002, FT P = 0.0006; SAP, MD P = 0.02, FT P = 0.007). FDP 10-2 showed reduced MD in moderate compared to mild NPDR (P = 0.02), and FDP 24-2 revealed reduced pattern standard deviation (PSD) in mild NPDR compared to no DR (P = 0.02). Structural analysis revealed thinning of the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) of moderate NPDR subjects compared to controls. The thinner GCL+IPL correlated with impaired retinal function.
This multimodal testing analysis reveals insights into disruption of the neuroretina in diabetes and may accelerate the testing of novel therapies.
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