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Ana P. M. T. Oguido, Miriam S. N. Hohmann, Felipe A. Pinho-Ribeiro, Jefferson Crespigio, Talita P. Domiciano, Waldiceu A. Verri, Antonio M. B. Casella; Naringenin Eye Drops Inhibit Corneal Neovascularization by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(13):5764-5776. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.16-19702.
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To investigate the effect of naringenin eye drops in corneal neovascularization induced by alkali (1 N NaOH) burn in mice.
Corneal neovascularization in the right eye of male Swiss mice was induced by alkali. Treatment with naringenin eye drops (0.08–80 μg; 8 μL of 0.01–10 g/L solution) or vehicle (saline) started 2 days before corneal neovascularization was induced and was performed twice a day. Mice were treated up until the time animals were euthanized and cornea tissue was collected for testing, which was 2, 4, and 6 hours after alkali stimulus for cytokine and antioxidant capacity measurements, and 3 and/or 7 days after alkali stimulus for the assessment of corneal epithelial thickness and neovascularization, neutrophil, and macrophage recruitment, and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf), platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf), matrix metalloproteinase-14 (Mmp14), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (Pedf) mRNA expression.
Naringenin eye drops inhibited alkali burn–induced neutrophil (myeloperoxidase activity and recruitment of Lysm-GFP+ cells) and macrophage (N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase activity) recruitment into the eye, decrease in epithelial thickness, and neovascularization in the cornea. Further, naringenin inhibited alkali-induced cytokine (IL-1β and IL-6) production, Vegf, Pdgf, and Mmp14 mRNA expression, and the reduction of ferric reducing antioxidant power and Azinobis-(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline 6-Sulfonic acid) radical scavenging capacity as well as increased the reduced glutathione and protein-bound sulfhydryl groups levels.
Collectively, these results indicate that naringenin eye drops are protective in alkali-induced corneal burn by inhibiting leukocyte recruitment, the proangiogenic factor expression, inflammatory cytokine production, and loss of antioxidant defenses.
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