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Yawen Niu, Guiqiu Zhao, Cui Li, Jing Lin, Nan Jiang, Chengye Che, Jie Zhang, Qiang Xu; Aspergillus fumigatus Increased PAR-2 Expression and Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression Through the Pathway of PAR-2/ERK1/2 in Cornea. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(1):166-175. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-21887.
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To determine the role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in cornea infected by Aspergillus fumigatus.
PAR-2 was tested in normal and infected corneas of C57BL/6 mice. Mice corneas were infected with A. fumigatus with or without pretreatment of PAR-2 antagonist (FSLLRY-NH2). Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) were stimulated with 75% ethanol-killed A. fumigatus with or without pretreatment of FSLLRY-NH2. Disease severity was documented by clinical score and photographs with a slit lamp. PCR, Western blot, and ELISA tested expression of PAR-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MIP-2, and p-ERK1/2. PMN infiltration was assessed by myeloperoxidase assay and immunofluorescent staining.
PAR-2 expression was significantly elevated by A. fumigatus, whereas the upregulation was significantly inhibited by FSLLRY-NH2 in mice corneas. FSLLRY-NH2 decreased disease response, PMN infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine expression compared with infected control. In PMNs, PAR-2 expression was also significantly increased by A. fumigatus, which was significantly inhibited by FSLLRY-NH2. FSLLRY-NH2 significantly inhibited proinflammatory cytokine protein expression, as compared with that in infected control cells, which may be modified by p-ERK1/2.
These data provide evidence that A. fumigatus increased PAR-2 expression and elevated disease, PMN infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine expression through PAR-2, which may be modified by p-ERK1/2.
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