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Patrick B. Rapuano, Alexandra H. Scanameo, Daeryl E. Amponin, Sefy A. Paulose, Mariya Zyablitskaya, Anna Takaoka, Leejee H. Suh, Takayuki Nagasaki, Stephen L. Trokel, David C. Paik; Antimicrobial Studies Using the Therapeutic Tissue Cross-Linking Agent, Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate: Implication for Treating Infectious Keratitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(1):332-337. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-23111.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Our recent studies raise the possibility of using sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG), for pharmacologic therapeutic tissue cross-linking (TXL) of the cornea. The present study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of SMG for potential use in treating infectious keratitis.
In initial (group 1) experiments, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) were treated with SMG (10–40 mM) for 10 to 120 minutes. In group 2 experiments, MRSA, PA, Candida albicans (CA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) were treated with SMG (20–200 mM) for 30 minutes. In group 2 experiments, BSA and neutralizing buffer were added to provide a proteinaceous medium, and to ensure precise control of SMG exposure times, respectively. SMG effectiveness was quantitated based on pathogen growth following a 24- to 48-hour incubation period.
In group 1 experiments, as expected, time- and concentration-dependent bactericidal effects were noted using MSSA. In addition, the effect of SMG (40 mM) was greatest against MSSA (99.3%), MRSA (96.0%), and PA (97.4%) following a 2-hour exposure with lesser effects following 30- and 10-minute exposures. In group 2 experiments, concentration-dependent bactericidal effects were confirmed for MRSA (91%), PA (99%), and VRE (55%) for 200-mM SMG with 30-minute treatment. SMG was not as effective against CA, with a maximum kill rate of 37% at 80 mM SMG.
SMG solution exhibits a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on MSSA, MRSA, and PA, with milder effects on VRE and CA. These studies raise the possibility of using SMG TXL for the treatment of infectious keratitis.
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