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Oliver J. Flynn, Catherine A. Cukras, Brett G. Jeffrey; Characterization of Rod Function Phenotypes Across a Range of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severities and Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(6):2411-2421. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-22874.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To examine spatial changes in rod-mediated function in relationship to local structural changes across the central retina in eyes with a spectrum of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) disease severity.
Participants were categorized into five AMD severity groups based on fundus features. Scotopic thresholds were measured at 14 loci spanning ±18° along the vertical meridian from one eye of each of 42 participants (mean = 71.7 ± 9.9 years). Following a 30% bleach, dark adaptation was measured at eight loci (±12°). Rod intercept time (RIT) was defined from the time to detect a −3.1 log cd/m2 stimulus. RITslope was defined from the linear fit of RIT with decreasing retinal eccentricity. The presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), ellipsoid (EZ) band disruption, and drusen at the test loci was evaluated using optical coherence tomography.
Scotopic thresholds indicated greater rod function loss in the macula, which correlated with increasing AMD group severity. RITslope, which captures the spatial change in the rate of dark adaptation, increased with AMD severity (P < 0.0001). Three rod function phenotypes emerged: RF1, normal rod function; RF2, normal scotopic thresholds but slowed dark adaptation; and RF3, elevated scotopic thresholds with slowed dark adaptation. Dark adaptation was slowed at all loci with SDD or EZ band disruption, and at 32% of loci with no local structural changes.
Three rod function phenotypes were defined from combined measurement of scotopic threshold and dark adaptation. Spatial changes in dark adaptation across the macula were captured with RITslope, which may be a useful outcome measure for functional studies of AMD.
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