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Alexandra V. Garafalo, Giacomo Calzetti, Artur V. Cideciyan, Alejandro J. Roman, Supna Saxena, Alexander Sumaroka, Windy Choi, Alan F. Wright, Samuel G. Jacobson; Cone Vision Changes in the Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome Caused by NR2E3 Gene Mutations. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(8):3209-3219. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-24518.
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To determine the progression of cone vision loss in patients with recessive disease from NR2E3 gene mutations.
Patients with NR2E3 mutations (n = 37) were studied as a retrospective observational case series clinically and with chromatic static perimetry. Patients were investigated cross-sectionally, and a subset was followed longitudinally.
Patients showed a range of visual acuities; there was no clear relationship to age. With kinetic perimetry (V4e target), a full field could be retained over many years. Other patients showed progression from a full field, with or without pericentral scotomas, to a small central island. Three patterns of S-cone function were defined, based on percentage of hypersensitive S-cone loci in the field. From occupying most of the visual field, hyperfunctioning S-cone loci could diminish in percent, remaining largely in the periphery. Normal S-cone functioning then dominates, followed by the appearance of an annular region of abnormal S-cone loci approximately 10° to 40° from the fovea. Overall, S-cone sensitivity declined 2.6 times faster than L/M-cone sensitivity.
Murine proof-of-concept studies suggest that clinical trials of patients with NR2E3 mutations may be forthcoming. Patterns of S-cone hyperfunction across the field would serve as a means to categorize patients as entry criteria or cohort selection in clinical trials. S-cone perimetry can be measured in the clinic and would be the logical efficacy monitor for therapeutic strategies. Given further understanding of the natural history of the disease, targeting the annular region of S-cone dysfunction for a focal therapy or for monitoring in a retina-wide intervention warrants consideration.
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