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Bing Wang, Pui-Kai Li, Jian-xing Ma, Danyang Chen; Therapeutic Effects of a Novel Phenylphthalimide Analog for Corneal Neovascularization and Retinal Vascular Leakage. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(8):3630-3642. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-24015.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Neovascularization (NV) and retinal vascular leakage are major causes of impaired vision in ocular diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify novel phenylphthalimide analogs with therapeutic effects on NV and vascular leakage and to explore the mechanism of action.
Antiangiogenic activities of novel phenylphthalimide analogs were assessed in vitro by using VEGF ELISA and endothelial cell proliferation assay. Their efficacies on retinal vascular leakage were evaluated using rat models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The in vivo antiangiogenic activity was evaluated using topical administration in the alkali burn-induced corneal NV model. The expression of VEGF and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured using ELISA.
Thalidomide and three novel analogs all showed inhibitory effects on endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF expression in vitro. Through intravitreal injection, all of the compounds reduced retinal vascular leakage in the OIR and STZ-induced diabetic models. Among these compounds, (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-5-amino-1H-isoindole-1,3-dione (DAID) displayed the most potent efficacy and reduced retinal vascular leakage in a dose-dependent manner in both the OIR and STZ-diabetes models. Topical administration of DAID also inhibited alkali burn-induced corneal NV. Furthermore, DAID attenuated the overexpression of VEGF and ICAM-1 in the retina of the OIR model. Intravitreal injection of DAID did not result in any detectable side effects, as shown by electroretinogram and retinal histological analysis.
DAID is a novel phenylphthalimide analog with potent effects on NV and retinal vascular leakage through downregulation of VEGF and inflammatory factors and has therapeutic potential.
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