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Lena Havstam Johansson, Ingmar Skoog, Madeleine Zetterberg; Gender differences in objective and subjective visual function. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(9):1090.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To improve knowledge in gender differences about visual related quality of life, vision and refractive errors.
Of the 1220 subjects (53.5% women) enrolled in the H70 study on 70-year-olds in Gothenburg, Sweden, 1129 subjects completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). A subset (n=561) underwent further ophthalmologic examinations including best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA), visual field test and contrast sensitivity test.
The VFQ-25 showed no differences in “dependency” between men and women (p=0.30). Women had lower scores in “distance activities” and “driving” compared to men but higher scores in “social functioning” and “color vision” (all p-values <0.001). The lowest scores was from the question “At the present time, would you say your eyesight using both eyes is…” 78.4, men 78.6 (p=0.80). Self-reported eye-morbidity questionnaire was answered by 1182 and no gender differences regarding glaucoma (p=0.48), AMD (p=0.49) retinal changes due to diabetes (p=0.08) was found. However, cataract showed a gender difference (p<0.001). More women underwent surgery for cataract; 16.3% compared to men 12.6% (p=0.08). All participants (n=561) were tested for BCVA, five participants were visual impaired (0.9%) but no one was blind. 489 participants (87.3%) had a vision ability of £ 0.00 logMAR, mean -0.053, SD 0.149, median -0.080, 99.3% in women and 98.9% in men (p<0.001). Contrast sensitivity was tested in 361 participants and 97.8% of them had normal or better than normal contrast sensitivity ability. Eight participants (2.2%) had moderate to severe contrast sensitivity and no difference between genders (p=0.75). No gender difference (p=0.82) was observed in those with a visual field loss; 91 participants (16.3%). Surprisingly 327 participants (61.5 %) had refraction errors, however no differences among men and women (p=0.27).
Men and women report differences in vision-related quality of life. Women have better self-reported color vision and less problems in social functioning compared to men. Men report better distance activities and driving ability compared to women. There was no significant difference regarding self-reported glaucoma, AMD, retinal changes due to diabetes, contrast sensitivity, visual field loss, refraction errors. However, women had better BCVA than men and more women have been told they have cataract and also having surgery of cataract.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2018 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Honolulu, Hawaii, April 29 - May 3, 2018.
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