July 2018
Volume 59, Issue 9
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2018
Does smartphone exposure time and smartphone SAR value affect ocular surface and refractive error of the dominant eye?
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Sertac Argun Kivanc
    Ophthalmology, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey
  • Berna Akova-Budak
    Ophthalmology, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey
  • Mahmut O?uz Ulusoy
    Ophthalmology, Baskent University, Konya, Turkey
  • Arzu Seyhan Karatepe
    Ophthalmology, Okan University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Osman Okan Olcaysu
    Istinye State Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Sertac Argun Kivanc, None; Berna Akova-Budak, None; Mahmut O?uz Ulusoy, None; Arzu Seyhan Karatepe, None; Osman Olcaysu, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2018, Vol.59, 951. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      Sertac Argun Kivanc, Berna Akova-Budak, Mahmut O?uz Ulusoy, Arzu Seyhan Karatepe, Osman Okan Olcaysu; Does smartphone exposure time and smartphone SAR value affect ocular surface and refractive error of the dominant eye?. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(9):951.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

Purpose : There is a substantial amount of studies about the effect of digital screens on the ocular surface. However, the number of studies investigating the effect of smartphones on ocular surface, though they are widely used throughout the world is quite a few. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the frequency of smartphone use and symptoms and ocular findings. In addition, we evaluated whether there is a relationship between specific absorption rate (SAR) values of smartphones and the ocular findings of dominant eye.

Methods : Twohundredeleven smartphone users who were older than 18 years who were referred to the Department of Ophthalmology for any complaint with a BCVA of 20/20 were included in the study. The complaints of the patients as well as the exposure time to smartphone screen and SAR Values according to brand and model were recorded. OSDI scores, TBUT and Schirmer values were also recorded.

Results : The mean age of the patients was 31±11 years and 58 % of them were female. The most common complaint was difficulty in seeing far ( 34 %), followed by burning and stinging ( 22 %) and headache or eyepain ( 9 %). The exposure time to smartphone screen was less than 2 hours in 42 %, between 2-5 hours in 34 % and more than 5 hours in 24 % of the patients. Thirtyseven of them had eye pain. Seventynine percent of the patients with eyepain also had headache ( p<0.001). The OSDI score was 36±20 in patients with eyepain whereas it was 29±23 in patients free of eyepain (p=0.025).The spherical equivalent values of dominant eyes of the patients with eye pain were significantly lower than those of patients free of eyepain ( p<0.001). TBUT values of dominant eyes of patients with eyepain were lower but not statistically significant (p=0.594). The spherical equivalent value of dominant eye increased and Schirmer score decreased as SAR value of smartphone increased (Spearman correlation ;R=0.253 p=0.017, R=-0.202 p=0.047 respectively).

Conclusions : Looking closely at the smartphone screen leads to difficulty in seeing far and blurred vision. As the time of smartphone use increase the spherical equivalent values change , which may cause headache and eyepain. In addition, The OSDI scores of patients with eyepain who had smartphone exposure have been found to be higher. The findings of the present study suggest that SAR value may affect the ocular findings of the patients.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2018 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Honolulu, Hawaii, April 29 - May 3, 2018.


This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.