July 2018
Volume 59, Issue 9
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2018
Tear Proteins as Possible Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Sarah F Hamm-Alvarez
    Roski Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
    Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Mark Lew
    Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Danielle Feigenbaum
    Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Srikanth Reddy Janga
    Roski Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Mihir Shah
    Roski Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Daniel Freire
    Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Benjamin Cooperman
    Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Raveena Ghanshani
    Roski Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
    Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Wendy Mack
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Curtis Okamoto
    Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Sarah Hamm-Alvarez, None; Mark Lew, None; Danielle Feigenbaum, None; Srikanth Janga, None; Mihir Shah, None; Daniel Freire, None; Benjamin Cooperman, None; Raveena Ghanshani, None; Wendy Mack, None; Curtis Okamoto, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Michael J. Fox Foundation, The Plotkin Foundation and the Gene and Kathy Monroe Foundation
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2018, Vol.59, 4909. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Sarah F Hamm-Alvarez, Mark Lew, Danielle Feigenbaum, Srikanth Reddy Janga, Mihir Shah, Daniel Freire, Benjamin Cooperman, Raveena Ghanshani, Wendy Mack, Curtis Okamoto; Tear Proteins as Possible Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease
      . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(9):4909.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Non-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD) occur years before motor dysfunction. Lacrimal glands are highly innervated by cholinergic neurons, while tear fluid secreted by lacrimal glands is greatly stimulated by cholinergic neurons. The production, packaging and secretion of specific proteins into tears may be regulated by early changes in nerve function to lacrimal glands. Analysis of alterations in the secretion of proteins into tears may identify reliable and non-invasive biomarkers for PD at different stages of the disease. Our goal was to evaluate whether tear protein composition differs in individuals with PD versus people without PD.


Methods : Tear samples from 60 diagnosed PD patients of varying severity and 30 age- and gender-matched non-PD controls were collected utilizing an anesthetized Schirmer’s test, eluted, and pooled from both eyes for analysis. Alpha synuclein and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) were measured using a human magnetic luminex assay kit (R&D systems) while lactoferrin (LF) was measured using a human lactoferrin ELISA kit (Abcam). Oligomeric alpha-synuclein was measured using a human alpha-synuclein oligo ELISA kit (My BioSource). Total protein concentration was measured using the Bio-Rad assay (Bio-Rad). Results are presented as mean ± SEM.

Results : Total alpha synuclein decreased significantly in PD patients (423.81 ± 50.7 pg/mg tear protein) relative to healthy controls (695.71 ± 125.8 pg/mg tear protein) (p-value=0.05) in tears from patients acquired from Schirmer’s strips taken during the anesthetized Schirmer’s test. However, oligomeric alpha synuclein increased significantly in PD patients (1.38 ± 0.29 ng/mg tear protein) relative to healthy controls (0.42 ± 0.16 ng/mg tear protein) (p-value= 0.005). While detectable in tears, neither MMP9 nor LF varied significantly between PD patients and controls. Total protein concentration was elevated significantly in PD patients (3.91 ± 0.23 mg/ml) relative to healthy controls (2.96 ± 0.22 mg/ml) (p-value=0.004).

Conclusions : Total alpha synuclein and oligomeric synuclein may have the potential to discriminate between tears of PD patients and healthy controls. To our knowledge this is the first report of tear collection and protein analysis as a possible non-invasive, relatively inexpensive and reliable biomarker for PD.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2018 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Honolulu, Hawaii, April 29 - May 3, 2018.

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