July 2018
Volume 59, Issue 9
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   July 2018
The relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and change in macular pigment in the Second Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease (CAREDS 2) study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Tom Patrick Lawler
    Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Zhe Liu
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Krista Christensen
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Yao Liu
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Robert Wallace
    Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Amy E Millen
    Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University of Buffalo , Buffalo, New York, United States
  • Elizabeth Johnson
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • Kristen Hall
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Karen Gehrs
    Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Barbara A Blodi
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Julie A. Mares
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
    Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Tom Lawler, None; Zhe Liu, None; Krista Christensen, None; Yao Liu, None; Robert Wallace, None; Amy Millen, None; Elizabeth Johnson, None; Kristen Hall, None; Karen Gehrs, None; Barbara Blodi, None; Julie Mares, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  National Institutes of Health, National Eye Institute grants R01EY013018, R01EY016886, R01EY025292, P30EYO16665,National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contracts HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN268201100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, and HHSN271201100004C, and an unrestricted departmental grant from the Research to Prevent Blindness,and the UW Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, National Institutes of Health grant T32 DK007665
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science July 2018, Vol.59, 5542. doi:
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      Tom Patrick Lawler, Zhe Liu, Krista Christensen, Yao Liu, Robert Wallace, Amy E Millen, Elizabeth Johnson, Kristen Hall, Karen Gehrs, Barbara A Blodi, Julie A. Mares; The relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and change in macular pigment in the Second Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease (CAREDS 2) study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(9):5542.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Macular pigment (MP) is a retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthins (L/Z). MP filters blue light, and serves antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles in the retina. Higher MP may reduce risk for age-related macular degeneration, and improve visual performance. Hence, maintaining or increasing MP as we age may be beneficial. Little is known regarding change in MP over a decade or more. We aim to quantify change in MP over 15 years in a cohort of older women, and to describe the relationship with total L/Z intake, and intake from diet and supplements separately.

Methods : 374 women (age 69-98) completed MP testing at baseline (2001-2004) and CAREDS 2 (2016-October, 2017) using heterochromatic flicker photometry. MP optical density (MPOD) measured at 0.5 degrees from the foveal center (with a reference measure at 7 degrees) is reported here. L/Z from diet and supplements was estimated via questionnaires. The relationship between MP change and total L/Z, dietary L/Z, and L/Z from supplements was assessed using linear regression, controlling for age, baseline MPOD, and calories. We also evaluated possible modification by MPOD at baseline or central adiposity (assessed via waist circumference), as these factors may limit accumulation of L/Z.

Results : We observed a mean [SE] increase of 0.15 [0.01] optical density units (39%) since baseline (P < .01), which may be partly explained by greater total L/Z intake. Consuming ≥ 10 mg/day total L/Z was associated with greater MPOD change (P = .05), although no significant linear relationship was seen. The association was driven by L/Z from supplements rather than diet. Consuming L/Z supplements ≥ 1 mg/day was strongly associated with MP change (P < .01). This was not modified by waist circumference, but was modified by baseline MPOD. Supplement users in the highest MPOD quartile (>0.52 OD units) had a lower mean [SE] change, compared with those in the lowest 3 quartiles (0.02 [0.06] vs. 0.27 [0.04], respectively; P-interaction < 0.01).

Conclusions : Despite early observations of declines in MPOD with age in cross-sectional studies, results in this prospective study suggest that MP can increase over time in older women and that supplement use and total L/Z intakes ≥ 10 mg daily promote accrual of MP, particularly in women with lower baseline levels.

This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2018 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Honolulu, Hawaii, April 29 - May 3, 2018.

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