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Jenna Tauber, Katie Lucy, Ian A Sigal, Junchao Wei, Samantha Schmitt, Zach Nadler, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Joel S Schuman, Matthew A Smith, Gadi Wollstein; In-Vivo Macro and Micro-Structure Optic Nerve Head Deformations Due to Gaze and Intracranial Pressure Changes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(9):2096. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The optic nerve and peripapillary sclera undergo mechanical stresses and strains due to tractional forces as the eyes move. In this study, gaze as a potential cause of lamina cribrosa (LC) deformation was explored in a well-controlled in-vivo animal model at normal and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP).
An adult healthy macaque was anesthetized, and OCT (Leica Microsystems, Chicago, IL) scans of the optic nerve head (ONH) (3x3mm; 400x400x1024 pixels) were obtained. A baseline scan was acquired at normal ICP (9mmHg) with the eye at neutral position followed by adduction and abduction positions. ICP was raised to 25mmHg via a ventricular cannula, and scanning was repeated in all gaze settings and locations. All scans were acquired after a 10-minute pause to allow for dissipation of tissue viscoelastic changes. Scans were registered in 3D using our own algorithm and evaluated for macro- and microstructure deformation. Lamina microstructure measurements were generated from shared regions among all scanning setting using our own 3D segmentation algorithm.
At baseline and elevated ICPs, the IOPs were10 and 19mmHg, respectively. Gaze shifts from the neutral position were associated with a seesaw movement of the macrostructure - nasal elevation and temporal depression in adduction and the reverse effect in abduction (Fig. 1). This effect was more pronounced in elevated ICP condition. At both pressure settings, the ratio of beam thickness to pore diameter increased when gaze deviated from midline (Table 1). The changes seen from neutral to abduction were greater than those seen from neutral to adduction; both findings were more pronounced under elevated ICP.
We demonstrated that gaze can induce noticeable macrostructure deformation of the ONH region and a measurable effect on global LC microstructural parameters. Microstructure effects are more pronounced in abduction and in elevated ICP. The magnitude of gaze effect as well as the potential damage to the lamina and its associated axons should be studied further.
This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2018 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Honolulu, Hawaii, April 29 - May 3, 2018.
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