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Hongdou Luo, Jiejie Zhuang, Piaopiao Hu, Wei Ye, Shanshan Chen, Yulian Pang, Ningfeng Li, Cong Deng, Xu Zhang; Resveratrol Delays Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss and Attenuates Gliosis-Related Inflammation From Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2018;59(10):3879-3888. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-23806.
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Resveratrol has been shown to enhance the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury for glaucoma. However, the precise mechanisms for resveratrol's protective effects are still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine whether resveratrol can inhibit RGC apoptosis, retinal gliosis, and inflammation, all of which are critical events in retinal degeneration following I/R injury.
Right retinal ischemia was induced in adult male Sprague Dawley rats by increasing intraocular pressure to 110 mm Hg for 60 minutes, and the left eyes maintained at normal pressure serve as the control. Intraperitoneal injection of resveratrol or control buffer was performed continuously for 3 days from pre- to post-I/R injury and the protective effects were evaluated and compared. RGCs were retrogradely labeled with Fluoro-Gold by injection into superior colliculi. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining. Western blotting and immunostaining for Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 were used to explore the Bax-associated apoptotic pathway. Gliosis was assessed by western blotting and immunostaining of retinal cross sections with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies.
In this study, resveratrol treatment significantly reduced retinal damage and RGC loss as demonstrated by the relatively intact tissue structure in hematoxylin and eosin staining at day 7 and increased Fluoro-Gold labeling of RGCs at day 14, respectively. We found that resveratrol exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect as assessed by reduced TUNEL staining, inhibition of the early upregulated expression of the apoptosis-related protein Bax, and decreased subsequently cleaved caspase-3. However, it did not affect Bcl-2 levels. Moreover, in our I/R injury model, the combined response of reactive gliosis and related inflammation, which were demonstrated by an early induction of pro-inflammatory mediators and subsequently increased GFAP level, were significantly attenuated after resveratrol treatment.
These results demonstrate that resveratrol can prevent RGC death by blocking the Bax-caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway and suppressed gliosis-related inflammation in the retina after I/R injury. Together these results support the use of resveratrol as a possible therapeutic strategy for glaucoma.
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